Osteoporosis is a bone disease that leads to loss of organic and mineral part of the bone, and therefore they become fragile and brittle. Osteoporosis is one of the five most common chronic diseases in general, and 80% of its patients are women. Osteoporosis is a disease of old age and is usually associated with hormonal changes that usually occur when the person reaches old age. The most common and most dangerous complications of this disease are fractures of vertebrae and femoral neck.
There are two types of osteoporosis:
- Type 1 or postmenopausal osteoporosis (occurs with women after menopause (last menstrual period), followed by a fracture of the vertebrae);
- Type 2 or senile osteoporosis (age-related osteoporosis occurs in both sexes after 70 years, presents particular hip fractures and is caused by aging).
The most common secondary causes of osteoporosis (caused by disease or drugs) are: Treatment with steroids and anticonvulsants (medicine used when treating epilepsy).
Symptoms Of Osteoporosis
The problem with this disease is that it runs usually without symptoms, until the moment when the most serious consequences occur, such as fractures. Reducing the height, rump and back pain is most often attributed to other reasons, or simply aging. It is an inevitable companion of the high incidence of vertebral fracture and femoral neck with great suffering and disability. Osteoporosis remains clinically inconspicuous for a long time – it does not have characteristic symptoms and most importantly, does not hurt.
It is therefore rightly called “the silent thief” because for years it impoverishes bone mass until it falls below the so-called “fracture treshold”, when there is a dramatic clinical complications of the disease – fractures of vertebrae. Vertebrae fracture usually occurs during rapid movement, bending, heavy lifting, and sometimes for no apparent or known reason. Vertebra fracture leads to stooped posture, characteristic for osteoporosis. Body height is reduced with each fracture – about 2-4 cm.
State of the art treatment methods for osteoporosis include the use of new drugs – bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates are shown to reduce the risk of vertebral and hip fractures. These are now the most effective drugs for treatment of osteoporosis in women and in men.
One of the products that has shown the best results is Bonviva (ibandronate 150mg). This drug is a non-hormonal drug, it is used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and it is unique among bisphosphonates ,because it is taken once per month . Safety, efficacy and tolerance in relation to drug Bonviva were studied through a comprehensive program of clinical trials on about 11,000 patients over a period of three years. In large studies, the drug showed strong antifracture efficacy.
The most important way to prevent osteoporosis is in time prevention. Sufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D are very important factors. It is essential for women to strengthen their muscles and avoid excessive use of tobacco, alcohol intake and coffee. Good sources of calcium in food are milk, yogurt, cheese, broccoli, orange juice and other products.
Exercise can strengthen bones and slow bone loss. Smoking increases the loss of bone tissue, by reducing the amount of estrogen produced by the body and reduced absorption of calcium from the intestines. More than two alcoholic drinks a day may reduce bone formation and reduce the body’s ability to absorb calcium . Hormone replacement therapy is the most important means to reduce the risk of osteoporosis during and after menopause.